Supporting sound ecosystem management

Scientific evidence shows that ecosystems are under unprecedented pressure, threatening prospects for sustainable development. In Europe, factors including agricultural intensification, the destruction of habitats, pollution, over-exploitation, invasive species and climate change pose threats to crucial ecosystems and the valuable services they provide. 

While the challenges are daunting, they also provide opportunities for local communities, business and government to innovate for the benefit of communities, economies and the global environment. However, in order to secure the environmental conditions for prosperity, stability and equity, timely responses that are proportionate to the scale of the environmental challenges will be required. In creating such responses, governments, the international community, the private sector, civil society and the general public all have an important role to play.

The UN Environment Programme’s work to strengthen ecosystem management in Europe includes:

  • Poverty-Environment Initiative
  • Pan-European Biodiversity Strategy
  • Projects on Lake Baikal
  • Projects on River Volga
  • The Carpathian Convention
  • The Framework Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Caspian Sea (Tehran Convention)


Red Lists: Gauging The Force Of Nature In North Macedonia


The Caspian basin has been isolated for over two million years and hosts a unique ecological system as a result.

Environmental cooperation for the Caspian Sea